The Mental Health Price Index 2022

In the context of pandemic lockdowns, war and the economic fallout of the last three years, data study compares the price of mental healthcare treatment around the world, as well as access to and quality of care.

At kenkou, we provide vital data monitoring technologies to make healthcare more affordable and accessible. With the pandemic and the consequences of war in Ukraine placing mental health services worldwide under severe strain, we decided to conduct a study to better understand the affordability and quality of mental healthcare. The Mental Health Price Index 2022 aims to shine a light on the countries offering the best access to mental healthcare.

We began by assessing all countries with available data, arriving at a shortlist of 50 countries with reliable and comparable data. In order to gain a fuller understanding of the costs entailed in mental healthcare around the world, we decided to investigate three main categories: the cost of care, the cost of medicines as well as the prevalence of conditions alongside access and quality of care.

For the cost of care, we researched the cost of therapy, cost per day for mental health hospitalization and the average cost for a month-long addiction treatment.

Next, when analyzing the cost of medicine, we began collating data via local pharmacies in each country for the most common mental health conditions; these were depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, PTSD and stress. In order to account for the varying degrees of pharmaceutical regulation, we examined both a generic and branded version of the most typical drugs prescribed to treat each condition worldwide. To gain a better understanding of how common the conditions were in each country as well as the cost of medicines, we also collected data on the number of cases per 100,000 people. Then, we calculated the national affordability of mental healthcare by creating an average deviation from the median using the combined cost of medicines and care in each country.

Finally, we felt it was important to examine the quality of care as well as the cost in order to have a more balanced overall understanding of mental healthcare treatment around the world. We therefore decided to look at the access to and quality of care, analyzing the number of psychologists and psychiatrists per 100,000 people in each country and scoring the quality of mental healthcare, as well as the physical and digital access to mental healthcare treatment. We collated data using these factors in order to create an overall mental health infrastructure score.

The result is a comparative index that reveals the cost and quality of mental health treatment in 50 countries around the world.

You can sort each factor from highest to lowest and vice versa by clicking on the icon above each column.
Prevalence columns reveal the number of people living with each condition per 100,000 population.
For a full explanation of how each factor was calculated, please see the methodology at the bottom of the page.
Example result : In the USA, the National Affordability of Mental Healthcare is 2818.49%, meaning the cost of mental healthcare in the USA is 2818.49% more expensive than the global median cost.
Mental Health Price Index Prevalence of Conditions Access to & Quality of Care
Country
1 USA 98.60 662.56 17287.11 1803.95% 1288.21% 2884.13% 1662.15% 2083.55% 12.69% 2818.49% 6,143.29 4,749.54 644.07 488.02 49,000 29.86 10.54 100.00 54.37 55.68 100.00
2 Switzerland 180.61 393.63 81923.00 69.54% 169.05% 676.65% 232.88% 359.45% 88.75% 814.52% 7,258.68 4,622.46 1,099.67 355.48 33,000 84.14 43.96 84.34 66.55 56.05 84.80
3 Singapore 79.65 271.80 9950.14 27.74% 418.71% 364.85% n/a 895.85% n/a 606.01% 2,877.38 2,333.84 832.3 431.19 n/a 8.32 4.19 69.88 51.30 67.92 65.61
4 Germany 80.00 506.56 5070.00 288.98% 118.33% 61.35% 1246.07% 314.58% 1.09% 577.79% 6,874.63 4,273.93 880.46 332.15 30,000 49.56 13.20 91.81 55.72 56.44 89.91
5 Iceland 122.39 603.84 31550.61 236.52% 134.01% 125.29% 462.65% 54.90% n/a 441.27% 4,992.81 3,155.95 945.02 302.78 41,000 15.01 21.08 80.48 84.72 54.02 85.65
6 Austria 100.00 572.29 14400.00 746.22% 204.40% 160.57% 70.34% 162.88% -75.75% 443.11% 6,277.00 3,817.92 1,041.34 345.22 31,000 124.14 17.61 85.60 64.60 55.68 85.42
7 Finland 100.00 463.59 6000.00 621.41% 173.86% 205.83% 47.35% 78.61% 78.49% 332.78% 4,145.85 4,838.92 1,013.04 315.85 35,000 109.49 23.59 84.65 92.05 61.62 92.56
8 Canada 87.18 777.69 12484.35 191.89% 96.23% 228.57% 159.36% 154.02% -25.31% 304.83% 4,500.00 3,433.80 817.79 323.54 50,000 48.74 14.68 81.09 54.83 55.90 77.53
9 Netherlands 110.00 623.12 6400.00 136.49% 53.10% 362.20% 190.62% -2.67% 89.77% 245.92% 7,087.85 4,170.52 874.32 441.14 24,000 123.46 20.87 84.33 60.65 55.96 82.89
10 Norway 125.00 638.65 3540.71 56.19% 87.57% 560.20% 28.28% 12.86% 312.70% 242.26% 7,084.72 3,699.15 937.19 334.85 29,000 73.52 48.04 88.53 63.85 77.78 89.12
11 Belgium 85.00 485.07 18000.00 110.50% 50.81% 39.82% 110.09% 75.75% -93.14% 175.53% 5,189.03 4,141.36 999.19 324.11 37,000 10.46 20.06 88.53 62.53 56.87 88.02
12 UAE 143.11 676.36 8764.06 24.90% 236.79% 67.04% 53.58% 93.08% n/a 201.84% 4,218.00 4,294.80 889.64 402.87 39,000 0.77 1.65 50.00 51.09 73.91 50.00
13 Colombia 36.01 45.73 2250.51 29.84% 98.04% -31.83% -70.17% -34.50% -62.86% -72.26% 4,614.81 2,272.63 741.87 283.36 47,000 1.60 1.84 69.58 58.62 55.64 67.26
14 Italy 90.00 370.07 6000.00 155.42% 65.41% 177.90% -18.02% 73.81% 87.25% 130.26% 6,011.41 4,606.79 1,062.35 373.36 42,000 3.80 5.98 87.38 62.79 55.00 86.58
15 Denmark 80.68 708.14 5842.71 2.57% 29.61% 125.10% 42.01% 84.60% 101.49% 111.29% 5,078.36 4,207.59 1,054.50 285.16 22,000 152.11 18.85 88.84 69.49 100.00 91.32
16 Sweden 119.14 308.20 4467.80 1.06% 89.05% 99.20% 60.21% 25.54% 29.07% 79.06% 4,915.81 4,767.15 1,067.24 322.17 29,000 149.71 20.86 87.89 70.00 75.21 90.00
17 Philippines 47.73 10.48 867.84 129.01% 120.89% 131.37% 168.24% 32.65% n/a 88.87% 4,409.33 2,619.97 323.65 280.53 47,000 0.89 0.52 69.54 50.55 50.20 64.75
18 Australia 64.02 861.83 8681.89 66.95% -34.17% -39.58% 59.25% -1.27% 36.27% 67.12% 5,725.56 4,618.89 1,147.24 422.73 40,000 103.04 13.53 87.79 61.16 66.02 86.98
19 Greece 57.50 587.83 11998.75 -51.02% 30.41% 45.85% -41.91% 85.71% -99.59% 57.27% 5,883.28 6,170.89 1,003.70 326.68 59,000 8.78 5.80 84.54 56.20 55.34 81.47
20 Hungary 45.83 157.75 32427.02 -6.73% 3.65% -45.60% -34.57% -60.69% n/a 43.18% 3,868.25 3,767.11 610.84 356.12 34,000 2.48 11.08 84.30 82.91 55.48 89.10
21 Japan 115.30 430.32 1921.60 -38.04% 105.46% 11.15% 25.08% 75.72% n/a 51.04% 2,476.33 2,618.75 738.95 359.91 39,000 3.04 11.87 80.57 100.00 56.21 90.16
22 Argentina 22.06 78.00 2629.22 7.71% 110.66% 135.69% 72.53% 109.45% n/a 51.69% 5,132.64 2,572.92 1,088.94 332.96 41,000 222.57 21.71 74.35 67.97 55.25 74.96
23 France 95.00 499.55 9509.00 -32.82% 1.68% -15.18% 17.70% -11.90% 0.00% 22.25% 6,460.58 4,472.49 983.98 306.07 36,000 48.70 20.91 87.93 62.41 62.78 87.45
24 South Korea 109.01 250.79 6203.49 -13.98% 53.65% 28.60% -12.56% 36.29% -97.43% 25.55% 3,596.37 2,634.01 618.69 404.07 38,000 1.59 5.79 75.67 57.38 56.10 72.63
25 South Africa 49.36 49.08 2595.14 -2.36% -1.96% 139.62% 113.13% 69.44% n/a 27.06% 3,625.96 4,132.55 540.97 221.79 46,000 18.48 1.52 81.33 51.16 58.15 76.55
26 Israel 80.11 297.10 7011.25 10.40% 27.15% 43.68% 82.97% 7.71% -0.69% 44.02% 3,749.59 4,344.54 1,061.03 304.69 29,000 88.09 9.87 73.01 58.12 67.61 70.67
27 Chile 45.70 96.40 5477.54 -13.74% 58.65% 90.94% 178.64% 1.73% -49.30% 42.94% 5,533.02 3,920.88 1,041.04 348.19 45,000 271.62 6.97 75.69 57.83 55.26 73.22
28 Malaysia 24.46 78.00 4193.27 28.67% 139.62% 52.63% -84.01% 128.87% n/a 12.03% 4,600.96 3,729.94 347.61 330.42 30,000 1.03 1.05 66.06 55.25 55.10 63.18
29 UK 117.77 485.85 4127.20 -24.02% -36.72% -40.38% 56.04% -32.87% 26.34% -4.59% 4,689.28 4,832.14 1,213.10 293.02 37,000 55.49 18.92 91.06 84.82 65.83 97.77
30 New Zealand 36.91 321.64 7356.89 67.34% -24.13% 22.15% 75.70% -82.96% 81.90% -2.29% 6,521.90 3,424.03 1,368.92 379.58 39,000 73.03 28.54 88.17 66.70 56.31 89.00
31 Brazil 46.36 14.90 1576.84 -5.05% 56.07% 96.19% -4.53% 100.91% -9.90% -3.15% 8,148.21 4,289.13 1,226.68 318.95 47,000 12.37 3.17 80.19 53.61 55.26 76.04
32 Czechia 55.13 245.40 6900.00 7.71% -5.87% -11.10% -3.90% 34.85% n/a -14.46% 3,521.07 3,718.49 616.62 362.82 33,000 2.52 12.36 84.02 95.21 55.98 92.43
33 Lithuania 57.50 91.00 2370.00 1.96% -11.70% 87.89% 65.39% -22.43% 244.79% -21.62% 4,775.04 5,331.41 593.86 343.15 26,000 15.86 18.45 87.31 68.53 55.95 88.35
34 Ireland 104.00 392.32 5235.65 -47.13% -38.06% -42.05% 7.75% -12.01% -76.80% -29.72% 6,972.17 4,668.93 753.5 401.66 42,000 74.08 19.13 83.55 64.83 55.79 83.17
35 Russia 60.12 86.91 468.97 n/a -52.15% -65.30% 136.88% -41.04% n/a -71.23% 3,469.31 3,855.32 591.94 345.62 20,000 4.64 8.48 84.16 59.73 59.20 82.18
36 Thailand 79.45 34.18 3527.53 -85.66% -29.43% -44.83% -55.69% 215.11% -93.87% -46.82% 3,860.74 3,665.64 396.86 372.44 45,000 1.75 0.72 73.62 52.86 55.43 69.28
37 Spain 50.00 388.25 6500.00 -51.77% -23.72% -23.54% -44.19% 3.69% 42.86% -49.55% 4,984.62 5,700.68 1,030.55 324.27 32,000 19.01 9.69 84.35 61.70 63.95 83.07
38 Mexico 48.33 96.40 1533.91 -10.38% -64.84% 121.89% 68.83% -29.54% -97.08% -38.69% 3,516.36 3,610.32 928.76 288.62 52,000 3.46 0.21 72.72 50.25 57.02 67.68
39 Portugal 74.00 251.53 6718.53 -48.27% -50.93% -24.21% -10.40% -39.65% 35.71% -61.49% 8,962.16 5,959.43 1,040.85 349.97 38,000 232.88 13.58 89.25 58.51 63.31 88.07
40 Poland 48.00 137.60 6776.55 -28.85% -40.14% -41.91% 4.59% -42.59% -83.40% -76.71% 3,533.77 2,911.84 644.32 369.13 42,000 16.35 24.18 79.65 60.64 61.08 77.86
41 Bulgaria 25.56 63.98 5112.68 -16.36% -31.05% -18.10% 62.28% -54.43% n/a -75.56% 3,898.78 3,655.72 536.68 354.96 31,000 1.87 7.20 80.82 60.95 55.38 78.88
42 Slovakia 55.00 181.42 5445.60 -47.91% -44.41% -41.95% -10.70% -29.40% n/a -82.63% 3,842.56 3,456.78 624.73 367.52 37,000 8.66 11.50 90.61 66.45 63.36 91.64
43 Ukraine 39.72 86.56 4866.24 -62.71% 22.66% n/a n/a -31.71% n/a -85.83% 3,481.64 5,135.72 605.73 334.98 21,000 - 6.93 86.23 52.61 61.37 82.46
44 China 29.47 27.17 709.07 38.05% 9.82% -38.17% -49.42% 23.06% n/a -86.20% 3,390.83 3,616.91 217.13 389.72 49,000 26.16 2.20 69.58 56.74 53.58 66.72
45 Egypt 40.50 33.83 1051.41 -57.35% -58.06% -58.97% 112.21% -51.34% n/a -106.50% 4,461.66 3,633.09 681.88 227.12 58,000 0.26 1.60 66.81 51.04 50.00 62.52
46 India 32.35 7.89 4116.92 -36.96% -73.24% -6.81% -71.36% -72.41% n/a -139.89% 3,029.38 3,710.16 363.98 292.1 27,000 0.07 0.29 82.11 50.26 55.79 77.04
47 Iran 8.76 41.19 438.20 58.44% -49.08% -78.78% -85.42% -64.44% n/a -151.78% 7,564.43 5,429.96 885.82 294.4 53,000 5.17 2.02 75.13 60.10 53.01 72.83
48 Indonesia 4.24 16.65 8282.04 -86.34% -84.74% -87.32% -75.22% -68.01% n/a -171.47% 3,504.98 2,441.19 332.47 303.35 26,000 0.18 0.31 71.31 53.30 57.14 67.28
49 Turkey 28.99 77.63 1739.46 -80.63% -76.45% -87.03% -59.69% -45.74% -35.10% -170.20% 4,650.03 4,355.40 864.32 279.94 59,000 2.54 1.64 72.29 52.52 69.32 68.16
50 Bangladesh 24.01 2.63 204.33 -90.10% -68.56% -96.37% -94.44% -79.41% n/a -209.09% 3,103.09 4,503.42 380.68 268.21 40,000 0.12 0.13 72.30 50.00 51.00 67.12
* Indicates the price is presented as a Deviation from the Median.

Methodology

The Mental Health Price Index 2022 compares and analyzes the cost of mental healthcare in
50 countries. The study is divided into three broad categories:

  • Mental Health Price Index
  • Prevalence of Conditions
  • Access to & Quality of Care

Country Selection

Data was collected from over 200 countries. The list was then reduced to 50 countries where reliable and comparable price data was available. Further iterations of the study will add countries as data becomes available in the future.

Mental Health Price Index

Average Cost of a One Hour Therapy Session

The average price paid by a patient for an hour-long counseling/therapy session with a mental health practitioner in each country. To create the average, multiple price points were collected from sources including yellow pages, local contact portals such as Doctolib, and articles.

Sources: Yellow Pages; local contact portals (e.g., Doctolib; European Association for Psychotherapy; Tokyo Mental Health; Complicated.life, etc.).
Average Cost per Day of Mental Health Hospitalization

The average price paid by a patient for a night in a psychiatric ward. To create the average, multiple price points were collected from sources including web pages of psychiatric hospitals as well as WHO data of cost of per night hospitalization which includes psychiatric ward consultation.

Sources: WHO; prices obtained from psychiatric hospitals in all researched countries.
Average Cost of 30-day Addiction Treatment (Rehab)

The average price paid by a patient for a month-long rehabilitation program for substance abuse issues. To create the average, multiple price points were collected from sources including web portals for rehab institutes and articles on rehab care.

Sources: Prices obtained from rehabilitation institutions in all researched countries; news articles on rehabilitation care (e.g., Huffington Post; Zorbacare.com; Bookimend.com).

Cost of Medicines

Six major mental health disorders have been studied in this category. A drug profile was created for each of them consisting of two typical drugs prescribed by doctors for each condition. Due to the varying pharmaceutical regulations in each country, not all drugs are approved everywhere. Therefore the index examined both the generic and branded versions available of the two drugs, with four different price points for each diagnosis. While the generic compound considered is the same for each country, the branded medicines are sold under several different names. In cases where one of the two most common drugs was unavailable, a deviation from the median has been calculated using the price of the available option.

The Cost of Medicines are displayed as a ‘Cost Deviation from the Dataset Median’. This reveals how much more or less expensive the medicines are from dataset median (the midpoint of the dataset) for all generic and branded versions of the applicable drugs.

Disorder Generic drug/compound
Depression
  • Fluoxetine
  • Paroxetine
Anxiety
  • Alprazolam
  • Diazepam
Bipolar disorder
  • Lithium carbonate
  • Risperidone
Schizophrenia
  • Haloperidol
  • Chlorpromazine
PTSD
  • Sertraline
  • Amitriptyline
Stress*
  • Medicial marijuana / THC

*Stress: For this factor, only medical marijuana was considered. Since medical marijuana is not legalized in all countries, the data is expressed as “n/a” where data was either not available or where medical marijuana isn’t legal. For its price, researchers looked at specialty shops selling different formulations of medical-grade marijuana, articles reporting the price of medical marijuana, or prescription-based medicines such as Sativex, Epidyolex, Marinol, and Dronabinol.

Sources: Prices were sourced from pharmacies in several cities of all countries listed in the study and it represents the raw cost of the medicines in each country without insurance assistance or price discounts.
National Affordability of Mental Healthcare

The National Affordability of Mental Healthcare factor includes the cost of medicine and cost of care. The overall price index is computed as the average deviation from the median price for each of the cost of care and cost of medicine factors.

The National Affordability of Mental Healthcare is displayed as a ‘Cost Deviation from the Dataset Median’. This reveals how much more or less expensive the national mental healthcare is from dataset median (the midpoint of the dataset)

Sources: Yellow Pages; local contact portals; WHO; prices obtained from psychiatric hospitals in all researched countries; prices obtained from rehabilitation institutions in all researched countries; news articles on rehabilitation care; prices sourced from online pharmacies and official medical platforms for each country.

Prevalence of Conditions

Prevalence of Mental Disorders

This data shows the prevalence of each disorder included in the previous category (depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, PTSD and stress) per 100,000 people in each country, excluding PTSD due to lack of reliable data.

Sources: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation; Gallup Survey 2018.

Access to and Quality of Care

This is a score that measures the access to and quality of mental health services in each country based on five factors. Each factor consists of one or more indicators which were scored and averaged. The equation for scoring is as follows:

For columns where a lower value is better, the score is inverted so that a high score is always better:

Data is normalized on a [50-100] scale, with 100 being the best score. Therefore, the higher the score, the better the country ranks for that factor in comparison to the other countries in the index. The formula used is min-max normalization:

The final score was determined by calculating the sum of the weighted average score of all of the indicators. Below you can find a detailed description of each factor within the category and the sources used.

Psychologists per 100,000 Population

The number of professional psychologists per 100,000 people in each country.

Sources: WHO.
Psychiatrists per 100,000 Population

The number of professional psychiatrists per 100,000 people in each country.

Sources: WHO; EUROSTAT.
Quality of Mental Healthcare (Score)

A score that measures a country’s expenditure on mental hospitals as a percentage of GDP, the expenditure on mental healthcare as a percentage of health expenditure, and the total disability-adjusted life year statistic (DALY) for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety and depression, as well as multiple others as reported by the WHO, expressed as a ratio against the prevalence of each disorder in the country.

DALYs attributed to a specific cause are calculated as a sum of the years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) due to the condition and years of healthy life lost due to disability (YLDs) in cases of people living in poor health resulting from the specific condition.

Sources: WHO.
Physical Access to Mental Healthcare (Score)

A score that measures someone’s access to mental healthcare in brick-and-mortar facilities. It was calculated by analyzing the number of outpatient facilities, the number of psychiatric beds per capita, the number of mental health units in general hospitals, the number of mental health day treatment facilities, and the number of mental hospitals in each country.

Sources: WHO, OECD.
Digital Access to Mental Healthcare (Score)

A score that measures someone’s ability to access mental healthcare support digitally. It was calculated using data on the number of downloads for healthcare apps in each country.

Sources: Applyzer.
Overall Mental Health Infrastructure (Score)

This final score measures the access to and quality of mental health services in each country, including all factors relating to access to and quality of care.

Sources: WHO; EUROSTAT; OECD; Applyzer.